1) Ideal Independent Voltage Sources
An ideal independent voltage source is a two-terminal circuit element where the voltage across it
a) is independent of the current through it
b) can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.
There are two symbols for ideal independent voltage source in circuit theory:
Symbol for Constant Independent Voltage Source
Find the current passing through the voltage source:
a) The voltage source is in series with the current source. Since by definition a current source keeps the current passing through itself constant and the voltage source is in series with the current source, it should have the same current .
Determine the power absorbed by the resistors, the conductance of the resistors and .
Find the power of each element. Which one is supplying power and which one is absorbing it?
a) Passive sign convention, supplying power.