# Voltage Divider - Voltage Division Rule

The voltage division rule (voltage divider) is a simple rule which can be used in solving circuits to simplify the solution. Applying the voltage division rule can also solve simple circuits thoroughly. The statement of the rule is simple:

Voltage Division Rule: The voltage is divided between two series resistors in direct proportion to their resistance.

It is easy to prove this. In the following circuit

Voltage Divider

the Ohm's law implies that
$v_1(t)=R_1 i(t)$ (I)
$v_2(t)=R_2 i(t)$ (II)

# Problem 1-16: Voltage Divider

Find $V_x$ (or $v_x(t)$ ) and $I_x$ (or $i_x$ ) using voltage division rule.
a)

b)

c)

d)

Solution

a)

Voltage divider: $V_x=\frac{5\Omega}{2\Omega+5\Omega}\times 14 V=10 V$
Ohm's law: $I_x=\frac{V_x}{5 \Omega}=2 A$

# Ideal Independent Sources

1) Ideal Independent Voltage Sources
An ideal independent voltage source is a two-terminal circuit element where the voltage across it
a) is independent of the current through it
b) can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.
There are two symbols for ideal independent voltage source in circuit theory:

Symbol for Constant Independent Voltage Source

a) The current source keeps the current of the loop $2A$ and the voltage source keeps the voltage across the current source $3v$ as shown below.